circular_motion_and_orbits.txt

[{'text':'A certain planet has Earths mass, but only one quarter its diameter. The escape speed from this planet in terms of Earths escape speed (v) is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'v ','optionB':'2 v ','optionC':'1/4 v ','optionD':'4v '},{'text':'A satellite in geosynchronous orbit has a period of revolution of ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1.5 h ','optionB':'1.0 h ','optionC':'24 h ','optionD':'365.26 d '},{'text':'If the distance between a spacecraft and Saturn increases by a factor of three, the magnitude of Saturns gravitational field strength at the position of the spacecraft ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'decreases by a factor of sqrt(3) ','optionB':'increases by a factor of sqrt(3) ','optionC':'decreases by a factor of 9 ','optionD':'increases by a factor of 9 '},{'text':'If the mass of the Sun were to become half its current value, with Earth maintaining its same orbit, the time interval of one Earth year would ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'remain the same ','optionB':'decrease by a factor of sqrt(2) ','optionC':'increase by a factor of sqrt(2) ','optionD':'increase by a factor of 2 '},{'text':'As a space probe travels away from Earth, its change in gravitational potential energy is positive, even though its gravitational potential energy is negative. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'At a particular location, the gravitational field around a celestial body depends only on the mass of the body. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'If both the radius and mass of a planet were to double, the magnitude of the gravitational field strength at its surface would become half as great. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The speed of a satellite in a stable circular orbit around Earth is independent of the mass of the satellite. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A body in uniform circular motion experiences acceleration that is constant in magnitude ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Centripetal acceleration is in a direction tangential to the path of the object in motion ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'At a constant speed, the centripetal acceleration of an object in uniform circular motion is inversely proportional to the orbital radius, yet, at a constant period of revolution, the centripetal acceleration is directly proportional to the orbital radius ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The centrifugal force on an object in uniform circular motion is, as required by Newtons first law of motion, directed toward the centre of the circle ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Centripetal force is a fundamental force of nature that applies to all objects, both natural and humanmade, in circular motion ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'It is possible for friction to be the sole force producing centripetal acceleration in a moving object. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Perturbations in the orbits of planets or other heavenly bodies can be used to locate additional such bodies. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The magnitude of your weight, as calculated from F = mg, yields a much smaller value than the magnitude of the force of gravity between you and Earth ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The International Space Station is an example of an artificial satellite. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'As the radius of the orbit of a satellite in uniform circular motion around a central body increases, the speed of the satellite decreases. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'You are whirling a rubber stopper of mass m, attached to a string, in a vertical circle at a high constant speed. At the top of the circle, the net force that causes acceleration is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'horizontal and greater in magnitude than mg ','optionB':'horizontal and lower in magnitude than mg ','optionC':'vertically downward and greater in magnitude than mg ','optionD':'vertically downward and lower in magnitude than mg '},{'text':'You are whirling a rubber stopper of mass m, attached to a string, in a vertical circle at a high constant speed. At the bottom of the circle for this rubber stopper, the net force that causes acceleration is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'horizontal and greater in magnitude than mg ','optionB':'horizontal and lower in magnitude than mg ','optionC':'vertically upward and greater in magnitude than mg ','optionD':'vertically upward and lower in magnitude than mg '},{'text':'You are whirling a rubber stopper of mass m, attached to a string, in a vertical circle at a high constant speed. You now reduce the speed of this stopper, so that the stopper barely makes it over the top of the circle. When the stopper is at its highest point, the net force toward the centre of the circle is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'horizontal, and greater in magnitude than mg ','optionB':'horizontal, and lower in magnitude than mg ','optionC':'vertically downward, and greater in magnitude than mg (d) ','optionD':'vertically downward, and lower in magnitude than mg '},{'text':'Which of the following is a list of all the forces that act on a satellite in circular orbit around Earth? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'the force due to the satellites motion and the force of gravity toward Earth ','optionB':'the force due to the satellites motion, the centrifugal force, and the force of gravity toward Earth ','optionC':'the centripetal force and the force of gravity toward Earth ','optionD':'the force of gravity toward Earth '},{'text':'A stunt airplane flies in a vertical circular loop of radius r at a constant speed. When the airplane is at the top of the loop, the pilot experiences an apparent weight of zero. The speed of the airplane is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'2gr ','optionB':'g/r ','optionC':'sqrt(g/r) ','optionD':'sqrt(gr) '},]


electric_fields.txt

[{'text':'The electric force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square ofthe distance between them. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'If the sum ofall the electric forces on a charge is zero, the charge must be at rest. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Electric charges always move along a path given by electric field lines. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'If the electric field in a region ofspace is zero,the electric force on any single charge placed in that region is also zero. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'When a small positive test charge is moved toward another positive charge, the test charge experiences an increasing electric force, an increasing electric field,and an increase in electric potential energy. Further,the charge finds itself moving into a region of higher electric potential. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Negative charges move from regions of high electric potential to regions of lower electric potential. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'If a charge q exerts a force of attraction of magnitude F on a charge -2q, then the charge -2q exerts a force of attraction of magnitude 2F on the charge q. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The only difference between electric and gravitational forces is that the electric force is larger. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The electric field at the surface of a conductor in static equilibrium is perpendicular to the surface of the conductor. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Electric field lines indicate the path that charged particles will follow near another charged object. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The acceleration experienced by two small charges as they start from rest and move apart is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'When comparing the force of attraction between an electron and a proton due to the electric force and gravity, it can be concluded that ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'the gravitational force is a lot stronger ','optionB':'the electric force is a lot stronger ','optionC':'the two types of forces are the same ','optionD':'the electric force is slightly stronger '},{'text':'The electric force on each of two small charged spheres due to the other sphere has a magnitude of F. The charge on one sphere is doubled,and the distance between the centres of the spheres is tripled. The magnitude of the force on each small charged sphere is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'2F ','optionB':'4F/9 ','optionC':'2F/9 ','optionD':'F/3 '},{'text':'The magnitude of the electric field due to a small charged object is 12 N/C at a distance of 3.0 m from the charge. The field 6.0 m away from the charge is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'36 N/C ','optionB':'6.0 N/C ','optionC':'3.0 N/C ','optionD':'12 N/C '},{'text':'A mass has a charge on it. Another small mass with a positive charge is moved away from the first mass, which remains at rest. As the distance increases, what happens to the gravitational potential energy Eg and the electric potential energy Ee? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Eg decreases and Ee decreases ','optionB':'Ee either decreases or increases, depending on the unknown sign of charge, and Eg decreases ','optionC':'Eg decreases and EE increases ','optionD':'Ee decreases or increases, depending on the unknown sign of charge, and Eg increases '},{'text':'Two isolated electrons starting from rest move apart. Which of the following statements is true as the distance between the electrons increases? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The velocity increases and the acceleration is constant. ','optionB':'The velocity increases and the acceleration decreases. ','optionC':'The velocity decreases and the acceleration is constant. ','optionD':'The velocity increases and the acceleration increases. '},{'text':'An electron experiences a force of 1.6 x 10 ^-16 N [left] from an electric field. The electric field is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1.6 x 10^3 N/C ','optionB':'1.0 x 10^3 N/C [left] ','optionC':'1.0 x 10^3 N/C [right] ','optionD':'1.0 N [right] '},{'text':'As the distance between two charges increases,the electric potential energy ofthe two-charge system ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'always increases ','optionB':'always decreases ','optionC':'increases if the charges have the same sign ','optionD':'increases if the charges have opposite signs, decreases if they have the same sign '},{'text':'Two oppositely charged parallel plates are separated by 12 mm. The uniform electric field between the plates has a magnitude of 3.0 x 10^3 N/C. An electron is ejected from the negative plate, with an initial velocity ofzero. The kinetic energy of the electron when it has moved halfway to the positive plate is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'2.9 x 10^-18 J ','optionB':'0 J ','optionC':'5.8 x 10^-18 J ','optionD':'1.4 x 10 ^-18 J '},{'text':'A positive charge of mass 2m is initially at rest, directly to the left of a negative charge of mass m, moving rightward with speed v. When the negative charge has velocity v/2 right, the velocity of the positive charge is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0 ','optionB':'v/4 left ','optionC':'v/2 left ','optionD':'v/4 right '},{'text':'Through a narrow hole you view an apparatus in which a small charged sphere,attached to a thin thread, hangs at rest at an angle of 10 degrees to the right of the vertical when there is no wind. From your observation,you can infer that ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'the electric field points right ','optionB':'the electric field points left ','optionC':'the electric field is zero ','optionD':'the net force on the sphere is zero'},]


electromagnetic_induction.txt

[{'text':'Electromagnetic induction is defined to be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Magnetic fields being induced. ','optionB':'Current from a battery source. ','optionC':'Production of current via a changing magnetic field. ','optionD':'Flow of electrons per second. '},{'text':'Variables that will change the size of current induced include: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Speed and magnetic field. ','optionB':'Relative motion and changing magnetic field. ','optionC':'Speed and current in coil. ','optionD':'Magnetic field and resistance. '},{'text':'Determine what would happen to the amount of emf induced if the change in magnetic field were double the original and the area tripled. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'3 times less ','optionB':'6 times less ','optionC':'6 times greater ','optionD':'2 times greater '},{'text':'Lenzs law states the direction of the emf induced in a wire will be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Always at right angles to the field. ','optionB':'In such a direction to oppose the change. ','optionC':'left ','optionD':'To increase the current in a wire. '},{'text':'A square piece of copper metal is swung through a magnetic field it will come to rest. This is because of: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Friction with the pivot. ','optionB':'Eddy currents induced in the metal to oppose the motion. ','optionC':'Magnetic attraction. ','optionD':'Induced electric fields. '},{'text':'2 square pieces of copper are allowed to swing through a magnetic field. One is a complete piece of metal, while the second has slits. What is observed? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'They are both stopped at the same rate. ','optionB':'The metal with slits slows less than the one that is intact. ','optionC':'They both keep moving at the same rate. ','optionD':'The metal with slits slows quicker than the one that is intact. '},{'text':'Benefits of induction cooking over conventional cooking include that induction cooking is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'magnetic so pans wont slide ','optionB':'much cheaper to purchase ','optionC':'fast and efficient ','optionD':'creates hotter cooktop surface '},{'text':'Cooking occurs in induction cooktops because heat is generated: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'At a much greater rate on the cooktop. ','optionB':'By the magnetic field. ','optionC':'In the pan and conducted directly to the food with minimal loss to air. ','optionD':'By friction between the pan and the top. '},{'text':'Eddy currents can be used in braking systems as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'There are enough holes in the wheels of trains to make large currents. ','optionB':'Fixed magnets are around a moving conductor (train) and set up eddy currents which stop the train. ','optionC':'Magnets placed at stations to slow train as it arrives. ','optionD':'A constant braking force. '},{'text':'Magnetic braking works because the kinetic energy of the train is converted to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Movement of the train track, which is not detected as the Earths mass is so large. ','optionB':'Sound energy and light. ','optionC':'Heat energy through resistance heating and magnetic hysteresis. ','optionD':'Deformation of the wheel. '},{'text':'Calculate the amount of heat produced when a saucepan with resistance 200 Ohms is placed on an induction cooktop, I = 10 A, for 10 minutes. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'2 x 10^4 J ','optionB':'1.2 x 10^6 J ','optionC':'1.2 x 10^7 J ','optionD':'7.2 x 10^7 J '},{'text':'Calculate the kinetic energy that needs to be dissipated in order to stop a train of mass 2.8 x 10^4 kg moving at a speed of 250 kmhr^-1. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'6.7 x 10^7 J ','optionB':'9.7 x 10^5 J ','optionC':'3.5 x 10^6 J ','optionD':'8.75 x 10^8 J '},{'text':'Determine the amount of magnetic flux in a square of side 2 cm when a magnetic field of 3 T is passed through it. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'12 Wb ','optionB':'1.2 x 10^-3 Wb ','optionC':'1.3 x 10^-4 Wb ','optionD':'6 x 10^-2 Wb '},{'text':'During your studies, you were required to show how the production of current could be altered by distance, strength of magnet and relative motion. A list of equipment that could be used to do this would be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Magnet, coil of wire, galvanometer ','optionB':'2 magnets and coil of wire ','optionC':'2 coils of wire and a power supply ','optionD':'2 magnets and galvanometer'},]


electromagnetism.txt

[{'text':'Electric current is defined to be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Electrons moving in one direction. ','optionB':'A region where a charge experiences a force. ','optionC':'The rate of flow of net charge through a region. ','optionD':'The number of electrons in a region. '},{'text':'With AC, the electric field in the wire changes direction to be opposite to how it started over time resulting in: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Electrons moving in every direction. ','optionB':'The change in the direction of force acting on an electron and therefore the direction of the current. ','optionC':'Charges moving in one direction. ','optionD':'No change in the direction of the force acting on an electron and therefore no directional change in current. '},{'text':'Emf is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Electromagnetic fluid. ','optionB':'The energy given to each coulomb of charge and in an ideal battery is the same as voltage. ','optionC':'The resistance applied to an electron. ','optionD':'The number of electrons moving per second. '},{'text':'When a charged particle enters an external constant magnetic field, the path it will follow is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'parabolic ','optionB':'straight line ','optionC':'reversal of direction ','optionD':'circular '},{'text':'The motor effect can be stated as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A current carrying wire placed in an external magnetic field will experience a force. ','optionB':'A current is induced when there is a change in magnetic field. ','optionC':'The direction of emf induced is to oppose the change in magnetic field applied. ','optionD':'A motor will spin when voltage is applied. '},{'text':'Applications of the motor effect include: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'loudspeaker; generator ','optionB':'galvanometer, induction cooktop ','optionC':'generator; induction cooktop ','optionD':'loudspeaker; galvanometer '},{'text':'Calculate the force experienced by a current carrying wire (3 A) of length 2 cm placed in an external magnetic field of 2 T. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'12 N ','optionB':'0.12 N ','optionC':'1.2 N ','optionD':'0 N '},{'text':'A force of 3 N is experienced by a current carrying wire in an external magnetic field of 1.3 T. If the length of the wire is 40 cm, calculate the current. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'5.76 A ','optionB':'156 A ','optionC':'0.576 A ','optionD':'1.56 A '},{'text':'Determine the force that would be experienced by a current carrying wire (I) of length (l) in a magnetic field (B) if the current were to double and the length tripled. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1/6F ','optionB':'2/3F ','optionC':'3/2F ','optionD':'6F '},{'text':'Determine how the force between 2 current carrying wires would change if the current in the first is doubled and the separation is halved. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'F ','optionB':'4F ','optionC':'F/4 ','optionD':'2F '},{'text':'Determine the radius of the path a proton will follow that enters a magnetic field of 1.2 T at a speed of 3 x 10^2 ms^-1. (mass = 1.6 x 10 ^-27 kg) ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'8.2 x 10^-39 m ','optionB':'2.5 x 10^-6 m ','optionC':'7.1 x 10^-19 m ','optionD':'1.6 x 10^-19 m '},{'text':'A proton and an electron are fired into a magnetic field and their paths are noted. Explain how you could tell which particle each is from the path. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The electron will make a more definite mark. ','optionB':'Fire them one at a time and note which is being fired. ','optionC':'They will curve in opposite directions due to their charges. ','optionD':'Proton will have a smaller radius than the electron. '},{'text':'To carry out an investigation that demonstrates the motor effect, you must show that a current carrying wire: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Will move away from a second wire. ','optionB':'Will have a magnetic field surrounding it. ','optionC':'Will attract a magnet. ','optionD':'will be deflected when placed in an external magnetic field. '},{'text':'If a resistor is ohmic, a graph of voltage versus current will show: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'a parabolic line ','optionB':'no constant relationship ','optionC':'a hyperbola ','optionD':'a straight line '},{'text':'If a graph of voltage (vertical) versus current (horizontal) of an ohmic resistor is produced and a second one is plotted that has a higher resistance, the slope of the second resistor will be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'cant tell ','optionB':'lower ','optionC':'higher ','optionD':'the same '},{'text':'In an open and a closed circuit the electrical potential energy is known as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Emf and electromotive force ','optionB':'Voltage and emf ','optionC':'Emf and voltage ','optionD':'Voltage and potential difference '},{'text':'Calculate the electrical power in a circuit that has 5 A and a resistance of 10 Ohms. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.4 W ','optionB':'250 W ','optionC':'2.5 W ','optionD':'50 W '},{'text':'Determine the amount of energy used to power a 60 W light globe for 2 hours. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'432 000 J ','optionB':'120 KJ ','optionC':'4.3 x 10^2 J ','optionD':'120 J'},]


generators.txt

[{'text':'An electric generator undergoes what energy transformations? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Mechanical to electrical ','optionB':'Electrical to mechanical ','optionC':'Heat to electrical ','optionD':'Kinetic to mechanical '},{'text':'The armature is the part of the generator that: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Carries induced current that is created by changing magnetic field. ','optionB':'Carries current to interact with the magnetic field. ','optionC':'Produces the magnetic field. ','optionD':'Is the stator. '},{'text':'Determine the flux if no field lines pass through the coil of a generator. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'maximum ','optionB':'A small amount. ','optionC':'zero ','optionD':'Residual amounts from previous positions. '},{'text':'The main structural difference between a DC and AC generator is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'DC is connected to DC supply, AC is connected to an AC supply. ','optionB':'DC has a split ring commutator, AC has a slip ring commutator. ','optionC':'AC has a split ring commutator, DC has a slip ring commutator. ','optionD':'AC has a squirrel cage and DC an armature. '},{'text':'A DC generator will produce an output that is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Gradually increasing and decreasing but always positive. ','optionB':'A constant value. ','optionC':'A sine curve. ','optionD':'A cosine curve. '},{'text':'A transformer is a device that: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Changes mechanical to electrical energy. ','optionB':'Changes electrical to mechanical energy. ','optionC':'Changes form. ','optionD':'Changes a given voltage to a wanted voltage. '},{'text':'A transformer consists of: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Armature, magnetic fields and power supply. ','optionB':'Primary coil, AC power supply, secondary coil and iron core. ','optionC':'Squirrel cage, magnetic field and rotor. ','optionD':'Primary coil, DC power supply, and iron core. '},{'text':'Calculate the output voltage of a transformer that has 100 coils in the primary and 350 in the secondary and is attached to a voltage of 50V. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'14 V ','optionB':'240 V ','optionC':'175 V ','optionD':'50 V '},{'text':'A step up transformer will have: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A greater number of turns in the secondary coil. ','optionB':'A series of steps in voltage output. ','optionC':'A greater number of turns in the primary coil. ','optionD':'A smaller number of turns in the secondary coil. '},{'text':'Determine the efficiency of a transformer that has IP = 5 A, IS = 15 A and VP = 50 V and VS = 5 V. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'70 percent ','optionB':'0 percent ','optionC':'30 percent ','optionD':'100 percent'},]


gravitational_fields.txt

[{'text':'The path that a projectile will follow once launched will be closest to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'circular ','optionB':'straight ','optionC':'concave ','optionD':'parabolic '},{'text':'What path would a ball dropped from a hot air balloon moving horizontally at 5ms-1 follow viewed from the ground? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'parabolic ','optionB':'circular ','optionC':'convex ','optionD':'straight '},{'text':'What path would a ball dropped from a hot air balloon moving horizontally at 5ms^-1 follow viewed from the hot air balloon? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'parabolic ','optionB':'convex ','optionC':'circular ','optionD':'vertically down to the ground '},{'text':'Calculate the time of flight of a ball that is thrown vertically up at 3 ms^-1. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'3 seconds ','optionB':'0.31 seconds ','optionC':'9.8 seconds ','optionD':'0.62 seconds '},{'text':'Calculate the height reached by a ball that is thrown vertically up at 3ms^-1. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.46 m ','optionB':'0.62 m ','optionC':'0.3 m ','optionD':'3 m '},{'text':'Calculate the time of flight of a golf ball hit off the edge of a 150 m cliff when it is hit at an angle of 15 degrees at 20 ms^-1. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'29 seconds ','optionB':'2.9 seconds ','optionC':'6.1 seconds ','optionD':'4.9 seconds '},{'text':'Determine the maximum height a golf ball will reach when it is hit off the edge of a 150 m cliff at an angle of 15 degrees at 20 ms^-1. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1.36 m ','optionB':'151.37 m ','optionC':'150 m ','optionD':'0 m '},{'text':'A ball is dropped while a second is projected horizontally before being allowed to fall. What can be said about the paths of the 2 balls? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The first follows a parabolic path, the second falls straight down. Both reach the ground at the same time. ','optionB':'The first follows a parabolic path and reaches the ground first, the second falls straight down. ','optionC':'The first follows a parabolic path, the second falls straight down and reaches the ground first. ','optionD':'The first falls straight down, the second follows a parabolic path. Both reach the ground at the same time. '},{'text':'Calculate the force of attraction between Jupiter and its moon Callisto, given the following data: G = 6.67 ￿10-11 N m2 kg-2 , mass of Jupiter=1.8986 ￿10^27 kg , mass of Callisto= 1.08 ￿10^23 kg , distance between them = 1 882 700 km ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'2.3 x 10^21 N ','optionB':'3.9 x 10^21 N ','optionC':'7.3 x 10^21 N ','optionD':'8.0 x 10^21 N '},{'text':'A difference between mass and weight is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Mass is measured in N and weight in kg. ','optionB':'Weight is the matter making up an object, mass is a force on an object. ','optionC':'Mass is the matter making up an object, weight is a force on an object. ','optionD':'Mass and weight change on different planets. '},{'text':'Calculate the value of g at a height of 250 km above the surface of the Earth. mass of Earth = 5.97 x 10^24 kg , radius of Earth = 6.37 x 10^6 m ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'6.37 ms^-2 ','optionB':'9.09 ms^-2 ','optionC':'8.1 ms^-2 ','optionD':'6.67 ms^-2 '},{'text':'Which is NOT a reason that there is a variation in g? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Type of crust. ','optionB':'Change in mass of an object on the surface. ','optionC':'Altitude above surface. ','optionD':'The longitude of the measurement. '},{'text':'Calculate the potential energy of a 400 kg satellite that is 300 km above the surface of the Earth. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'2.4 x 10^10 J ','optionB':'1.76 x 10^6 N ','optionC':'5.3 x 10^11 N ','optionD':'1.76 x 10^6 J '},{'text':'Escape velocity can best be described as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The velocity needed by an object to totally escape the gravitational pull of a planet. ','optionB':'The velocity needed to escape moving in a parabolic path. ','optionC':'The velocity needed to escape the Moons pull. ','optionD':'The velocity needed to reach orbit around a planet. '},{'text':'Determine the height a brick of 0.8 kg is raised in order to reach a potential energy of 110 J. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1.4 m ','optionB':'9.8 m ','optionC':'14 m ','optionD':'137.5 m '},{'text':'In determining the acceleration due to gravity with a pendulum, what 2 variables need to be measured? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Period and length ','optionB':'Gravity and length ','optionC':'Length and swing angle ','optionD':'Period and gravity '},{'text':'The acceleration due to gravity on a planet is dependent on: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Mass and radius of the planet. ','optionB':'Radius only. ','optionC':'Mass only. ','optionD':'Density. '},{'text':'Determine, in terms of g, the acceleration due to gravity of a planet that has a radius twice that of Earth and half the mass. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1/2 g ','optionB':'g ','optionC':'4 g ','optionD':'8 g '},{'text':'Determine the escape velocity of a rocket from Earth. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'11 181 ms^-1 ','optionB':'0.0017 ms^-1 ','optionC':'11 181 kms^-1 ','optionD':'0.0017 kms^-1 '},{'text':'When analysing projectile motion using horizontal and vertical components, an assumption is being made. This is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Motion is relative. ','optionB':'Horizontal and vertical components are independent of each other. ','optionC':'The horizontal acceleration is constant. ','optionD':'The path is parabolic.'},]


magnetic_fields.txt

[{'text':'A charge moving in a direction perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field experiences a force, but its velocity does not change. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'When a charged particle is fired into and perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field, it moves along a circular path until it escapes the field. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The force on a conductor in a uniform magnetic field is perpendicular to both the current in the conductor and the magnetic field. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Reversing the direction ofthe current in a conductor in a uniform magnetic field reverses the direction of the force on the conductor. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The magnetic field on the outside ofa coaxial cable is proportional to the current in the cable. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The magnetic field inside a long,straight coil with many closely packed turns is essentially uniform. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A charged particle is placed into a uniform magnetic field with an initial velocity of zero.If no electric or gravitational forces act on the particle, then it ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'accelerates straight forward ','optionB':'does not move ','optionC':'moves in a circle ','optionD':'moves at constant speed '},{'text':'If particles with the same initial velocity and charge pass into and perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field, then ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'the radius of curvature is the same for each particle ','optionB':'the radius ofcurvature is greater for the more massive particles ','optionC':'the radius ofcurvature is greater for the less massive particles ','optionD':'all the particles spiral with decreasing radius under all circumstances '},{'text':'An electron moves within a uniform magnetic field of 0.20 T, at a speed of 5 x 10^5 m/s. The magnetic force on the electron is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1.6 x 10^14 N ','optionB':'1.6 x 10^14N [perpendicular to velocity] ','optionC':'1.6 x 10^14N [perpendicular to magnetic field] ','optionD':'zero '},{'text':'If a straight length of wire with a current is immersed in a uniform magnetic field, then the wire ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'experiences no force if it is perpendicular to the field ','optionB':'experiences some magnetic force, no matter what its orientation in the field ','optionC':'experiences no force if it is parallel to the field ','optionD':'experiences no force if the current is alternating '},{'text':'An electron passes into a magnetic field at 90 degrees. Its consequent circular path has radius r. Ifthe speed of the electron were twice as great and the magnetic field were twice as strong, the radius would be ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'r ','optionB':'2r ','optionC':'4r ','optionD':'r/2 '},{'text':'Particles in a mass spectrograph emerge from a velocity selector into a uniform magnetic field at 90 degrees. If the radius ofthe circular path of particle 1 is larger than the radius for particle 2,then ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'particle 1 is of greater mass than particle 2 ','optionB':'particle 1 has a smaller charge than particle 2 ','optionC':'the charge-to-mass ratio of particle 1 is smaller than the charge-to-mass ratio of particle 2 ','optionD':'the charge-to-mass ratio of particle 1 is larger than the charge-to-mass ratio of particle 2'},]


motors.txt

[{'text':'DC motors convert ? energy to ? energy ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Electric --> heat ','optionB':'Kinetic --> electric ','optionC':'Heat --> electric ','optionD':'Electrical --> kinetic '},{'text':'Determine the force needed to be applied to open a door from a handle positioned 50 cm from the hinge to create a torque of 2.4 Nm. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.048 N ','optionB':'1.2 N ','optionC':'4.8 N ','optionD':'120 N '},{'text':'The armature in a motor has four sides yet only 2 are used to calculate the force and therefore torque in a motor. This is because: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Torque does not rely on force on wires. ','optionB':'The formula only allows for 2 sides. ','optionC':'Multiplying by the number of coils evens out the difference. ','optionD':'Wires parallel to the magnetic field experience no force. '},{'text':'Determine the torque generated in a motor that has 100 turns of wire carrying 2 A of current, dimensions of 0.02 m square in a magnetic field of 3 T. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'2.4 Nm ','optionB':'1.2 Nm ','optionC':'12 Nm ','optionD':'0.24 Nm '},{'text':'At what position is the armature when there is no torque experienced? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'90 degrees angle with the magnetic field. ','optionB':'30 degrees to the magnetic field. ','optionC':'Parallel to the magnetic field. ','optionD':'Any position will give the same value. '},{'text':'The main difference between a motor and a galvanometer is that: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The magnets are radial in a galvanometer and not in a motor. ','optionB':'Motor resists the turning effect with a spring and a galvanometer continues to turn in one direction. ','optionC':'Galvanometer resists the turning effect with a spring and a motor continues to turn in one direction. ','optionD':'There is no real difference in their structure. '},{'text':'The armature in a motor is needed in order to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Produce a magnetic field. ','optionB':'Give structure to the motor. ','optionC':'Allow the direction of current to be swapped. ','optionD':'Allow the flow of current and interact with magnetic field. '},{'text':'In terms of original torque t, how would the torque in a motor change if the number of coils were to double and the length of the sides of a square coil is doubled? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'8t ','optionB':'t ','optionC':'4t ','optionD':'2t '},{'text':'The rotor in a motor is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The part that produces eddy currents to increase the speed of the motor. ','optionB':'The magnets in a motor. ','optionC':'The blades of a motor. ','optionD':'The part that moves within the motor. '},{'text':'Commutators in motors are there in order to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Produce a magnetic field. ','optionB':'Reverse the direction of the spin of the armature. ','optionC':'Reverse the direction of the current flowing in each coil every half turn. ','optionD':'Provide conductive contact with the armature. '},{'text':'What current would need to be passed through a wire of length 30 cm to produce a force of 2.1 N when placed in a magnetic field of 1.5 T? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.046 A ','optionB':'94.5 A ','optionC':'0.945 A ','optionD':'4.6 A '},{'text':'Back emf is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Potential difference across a motor created by the changing magnetic flux passing through the wire coils within the motor. ','optionB':'Potential difference supplied to a motor. ','optionC':'Potential difference supply by a power supply connected in reverse. ','optionD':'The emf produced when a motor is spun backward. '},{'text':'When a motor with a load is moving at top speed, what can be said about the current and back emf? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'No current; and back emf > applied voltage. ','optionB':'Minimal current; and emf > applied voltage. ','optionC':'Minimal current; and emf < applied voltage. ','optionD':'No current; and back emf = applied voltage, '},{'text':'Identify why the size of back emf changes as a motor starts to spin. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'It can only be detected when it reaches a certain value. ','optionB':'It takes a while to build up. ','optionC':'A motor must be at full speed in order to induce back emf. ','optionD':'Emf induced is dependent on speed. '},{'text':'There is no net force on a spinning motor with a load attached to it. This is because: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Acceleration is zero. ','optionB':'The magnetic field doesnt interact when at speed. ','optionC':'There is no current due to the back emf induced. ','optionD':'The motor effect doesnt work in this situation. '},{'text':'An AC induction motor is supplied electricity in order to produce: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Less friction and be more efficient. ','optionB':'The motor effect. ','optionC':'An alternating magnetic field to induce current. ','optionD':'Eddy currents. '},{'text':'An induction motor starts to spin when: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Kinetic energy is transformed to electrical. ','optionB':'The magnetic poles are rotated causing a change in magnetic field. ','optionC':'A magnetic field is switched on. ','optionD':'Current flows and the motor effect works. '},{'text':'The benefits of an AC induction motor over an AC universal or DC are: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Cheap and efficient. ','optionB':'High power, cheap. ','optionC':'Cooling fan allows higher efficiency and lower power usage. ','optionD':'There are less moving parts and highly efficient. '},{'text':'A squirrel cage is a part of a motor where: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Magnetic fields are produced. ','optionB':'Current is induced. ','optionC':'Squirrels do exercise. ','optionD':'Eddy currents form to increase speed. '},{'text':'When comparing a universal AC motor and an AC induction motor, the AC motor has the following extra parts: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Cooling fan and squirrel cage. ','optionB':'Armature and a stator. ','optionC':'Commutator and brushes. ','optionD':'Commutator and cooling fan.'},]


mri.txt

[{'text':'Protons, neutrons and electrons have a quantum mechanical property called spin. The spin that each can have is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Up or down. ','optionB':'Up and left. ','optionC':'Down and right. ','optionD':'Left and right. '},{'text':'When there is an even number of neutrons and protons, the spins will: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Always be the same for each neucleon. ','optionB':'Align in pairs so that the net spin is zero. ','optionC':'Be balanced by the spin of the electrons. ','optionD':'Always be the same for protons and opposite for neutrons. '},{'text':'A net-spin is found in atoms that have: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'An odd number of nucleons. ','optionB':'An odd number of neutrons. ','optionC':'An even number of nucleons. ','optionD':'An odd number of protons. '},{'text':'A magnetic moment is a property possessed by particles with: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Magnetic materials inside them. ','optionB':'Magnetised cores. ','optionC':'Spin and that behave like tiny magnets. ','optionD':'All particles. '},{'text':'Atoms that have an odd number of nucleons will have: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'No magnetic moment. ','optionB':'Large magnetic moment. ','optionC':'An unpaired magnetic moment. ','optionD':'Paired magnetic moment. '},{'text':'Examples of atoms that have a magnetic moment include: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Uranium and oxygen-16. ','optionB':'Phosphorus-31 and helium. ','optionC':'Nitrogen-15 and carbon-12. ','optionD':'Hydrogen and carbon-13. '},{'text':'When placed in a magnetic field, atoms with a magnetic moment will align themselves to be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Pointing to the left of the magnetic field. ','optionB':'In random directions. ','optionC':'Up and down. ','optionD':'Parallel or anti-parallel. '},{'text':'Hydrogen is considered to be an important element in relation to magnetic moment because: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'It is present in most molecules of the body. ','optionB':'It is found in high content in the air we breathe. ','optionC':'It is able to be attracted to magnetic material inside the body. ','optionD':'It is the lightest and therefore easiest element to manipulate. '},{'text':'Explain why hydrogen is not "magnetic". ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'It has a strong electric field. ','optionB':'The magnetic moments are randomly aligned resulting in zero net effect. ','optionC':'The magnetic effect is too small to be measured. ','optionD':'The domains are not aligned. '},{'text':'In the presence of a magnetic field, what happens to the alignment of hydrogen atoms? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The protons align anti-parallel to the magnetic field. ','optionB':'The protons align above the magnetic field. ','optionC':'The protons align left of the magnetic field. ','optionD':'The protons align parallel to the magnetic field. '},{'text':'Precession of a nucleus is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The rotation of a magnetic moment around a magnetic field. ','optionB':'Rotation of a magnetic moment causing a magnetic field. ','optionC':'The net movement of hydrogen atoms due to the magnetic field. ','optionD':'The halting of rotation of nuclei. '},{'text':'Larmour frequency is the frequency: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The radioisotopes used to image the body. ','optionB':'Of light used to view a patient. ','optionC':'Of precession of a magnetic moment. ','optionD':'Of waves emitted from the body. '},{'text':'Determine the magnetic property moment for a proton in a magnetic field of 1 T given the Larmour frequency is 42.6 MHz. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'5.6 x 10^-26 J T-1 ','optionB':'1.4 x 10^-32 J T-1 ','optionC':'1.4 x 10^-26 J T-1 ','optionD':'5.6 x10^-32 J T-1 '},{'text':'During an MRI, the RF electromagnetic radiation causes the protons in the body of the patient to do 2 things. These are: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Cause some anti-parallel aligned protons to flip making the net magnetic effect zero. Secondly: the protons precess in step with each other. ','optionB':'Cause some parallel aligned protons to flip making it have a net magnetic effect. Secondly: the protons precess in step with each other. ','optionC':'Cause some parallel aligned protons to flip making the net magnetic effect zero. Secondly: the protons precess in step with each other. ','optionD':'Cause some parallel aligned protons to flip making the net magnetic effect zero. Secondly: the protons stop precessing in step with each other. '},{'text':'When the RF pulse is removed, the protons ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Reemit the energy absorbed and become excited. ','optionB':'Reemit the energy absorbed and return to original state or a state of relaxation. ','optionC':'Absorb energy and return to original state or a state of relaxation. ','optionD':'Absorb the energy absorbed and become excited. '},{'text':'Longitudinal relaxation time constant is the time taken for protons in: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Excited states to return to their normal state. ','optionB':'The body to flip. ','optionC':'A magnetic field to decay. ','optionD':'The magnetic component perpendicular to the external field to return to zero. '},{'text':'Transverse relaxation time constant is the time taken for: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The protons in the body to flip. ','optionB':'The magnetic component perpendicular to the external field to return to zero. ','optionC':'Electrons in excited states to return to their normal state. ','optionD':'A magnetic field to cause a proton to decay. '},{'text':'The amplitude of the signal that is emitted as protons return to a state of relaxation is determined by: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The resolution of the camera used. ','optionB':'The quality of the equipment. ','optionC':'The number of protons in the tissue. ','optionD':'The superposition of the waves emitted and absorbed. '},{'text':'Tumours are clear on MRI images as they are: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Opaque to light. ','optionB':'Characterised by high cell division and rapid growth rates and typically have high water content. ','optionC':'Absorb the magnetic field that is applied. ','optionD':'Large in nature and easy to spot. '},{'text':'Contrast agents that are used in MRI are used: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'To dye the tissue in specific regions. ','optionB':'As a method of detection as it affects the protons in nearby hydrogen atoms. ','optionC':'As no other method will work. ','optionD':'To speed up the detection of abnormal cells.'},]


newtons_laws.txt

[{'text':'When a ball is rising upward after you toss it vertically, the net force on the ball is equal to the force of gravity on the ball. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'You pull horizontally on a rope, attached firmly to a hook on the wall, with a force of magnitude 16 N. If you pull horizontally with a force of the same magnitude on a string held firmly by a friend, the magnitude of the tension in the string is 32 N. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A grocery cart, at rest on a level floor, experiences a normal force of magnitude 155 N.You push on the cart handle with a force directed at an angle of 25 degrees below the horizontal. The magnitude of the normal force is now less than 155 N. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'It is impossible for an object to be travelling eastward while experiencing a westward net force. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'It is possible for the sum of three vector forces of equal magnitude to be zero. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Static friction is always greater than kinetic friction. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'One possible SI unit of weight is the kilogram. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'When you are standing at rest on the floor, there are two action-reaction pairs of forces involved. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Viscosity and air resistance are both types of friction involving fluids. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Fictitious forces must be invented to explain observations whenever the chosen frame of reference is in motion. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A person of mass 65 kg is ascending on an escalator at a constant velocity of 2.5 m/s [22 degrees above the horizontal]. The magnitude of the net force acting on the person is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0 N ','optionB':'6400 N ','optionC':'5900 N ','optionD':'2400 N '},{'text':'On a windy day, a quarterback throws a football into the wind.After the football has left the quarterbacks hand and is moving through the air, the correct list of the force(s) acting on the football is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'a force from the throw and the downward force of gravity ','optionB':'a force from the throw, a force exerted by the air, and the downward force of gravity ','optionC':'a force exerted by the air and a force from the throw ','optionD':'a force exerted by the air and the downward force of gravity '},{'text':'A skier of mass m is sliding down a snowy slope that is inclined at an angle phi above the horizontal. The magnitude of the normal force on the skier is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'mg cos(phi) ','optionB':'mg sin(phi) ','optionC':'mg ','optionD':'zero '},{'text':'A soft-drink can is resting on a table. If Earths force of gravity on the can is the action force, the reaction force is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'an upward normal force exerted by the table on the can ','optionB':'a downward gravitational force exerted by Earth on the table ','optionC':'a downward normal force exerted on the table by the can ','optionD':'an upward force of gravity on Earth by the can '},{'text':'A toboggan is on a frictionless slope inclined at an angle to the horizontal of phi. The magnitude of the acceleration down the slope is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'phi. sin g ','optionB':'g sin phi ','optionC':'g tan phi ','optionD':'g cos phi'},]


nuclear.txt

[{'text':'The need for the strong nuclear force was to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Explain the stability of the nucleus. ','optionB':'Compensate for not knowing about the neutron. ','optionC':'Account for limitations in atom models. ','optionD':'Explain how electrons are held to atoms. '},{'text':'Properties of the strong nuclear force include: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The same force is not dependent on charge, it acts over short range, it only acts between adjacent nucleons. ','optionB':'The same force is not dependent on charge, it acts over long range, it acts between all nucleons. ','optionC':'The same force is dependent on charge, it acts over short range, it acts between all nucleons. ','optionD':'The same force is dependent on charge, it acts over long range, it only acts between adjacent nucleons. '},{'text':'Nucleons refers to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Electrons and protons ','optionB':'Protons and neutrons ','optionC':'Electrons and neutrons ','optionD':'Quarks and electrons '},{'text':'An isotope is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Atom that has a smaller number of electrons than other atoms of the same element. ','optionB':'A nucleus that has different number of neutrons. ','optionC':'A nucleus with the same number of protons and neutrons. ','optionD':'A nucleus in which the number of neutrons can vary. '},{'text':'Difference between the nucleons of an atom: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Proton - negative charge, Neutron - positive charge. ','optionB':'Proton - positive charge, Neutron - neutral. ','optionC':'Proton - neutral, Neutron - positive charge. ','optionD':'Proton - negative charge, Neutron - neutral. '},{'text':'Transmutation can be naturally occurring or artificially induced. Either way it can be defined to be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Two elements are fused together. ','optionB':'The number of neutrons is changed in the nucleus of an atom. ','optionC':'One element changes into another. ','optionD':'An element is split. '},{'text':'During natural transmutation the parent nucleus ejects particles to form a daughter product. During this process: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The daughter nucleus is larger than the parent. ','optionB':'New isotopes are created. ','optionC':'There is a series of disintegrations that continue until a stable isotope is formed. ','optionD':'Random particles are spontaneously ejected. '},{'text':'The emission of a particle from an unstable nucleus that has 2 protons and 2 neutrons is known as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Hydrogen ','optionB':'Beta decay ','optionC':'Lithium ','optionD':'Alpha decay '},{'text':'Beta minus decay occurs when: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A positron which has the same properties of an electron but a positive charge is created. ','optionB':'A neutron has transformed to a proton rather than a nucleon being ejected from the nucleus. ','optionC':'A proton transforms to a neutron. ','optionD':'The number of neutrons in the nucleus is too high and a neutron transforms to a proton. '},{'text':'In beta decay the number of nucleons remains the same before and after the transformation. This is because: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The number of neutrons in the nucleus is too high and a neutron transforms to a proton. ','optionB':'A proton transforms to a neutron. ','optionC':'A neutron has transformed to a proton rather than a nucleon being ejected from the nucleus. ','optionD':'A positron which has the same properties of an electron but a positive charge is created. '},{'text':'Beta plus decay occurs when ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A proton transforms to a neutron. ','optionB':'The number of neutrons in the nucleus is too high and a neutron transforms to a proton. ','optionC':'A positron which has the same properties of an electron but a positive charge is created. ','optionD':'A neutron has transformed to a proton rather than a nucleon being ejected from the nucleus. '},{'text':'A beta plus decay involves a particle that is also known as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'a proton ','optionB':'a neutron ','optionC':'a positron. It has the same properties of an electron but a positive charge. ','optionD':'an electron '},{'text':'Electron capture involves an electron from the inner shell of the atom being captured into the nucleus. The outcome is similar to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Beta minus decay ','optionB':'Alpha decay ','optionC':'Beta plus decay ','optionD':'Gamma decay '},{'text':'Examples of antimatter include: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Positron and neutron ','optionB':'Positron and proton ','optionC':'Positrons and anti-neutrino ','optionD':'Quarks and electrons '},{'text':'Alpha decay and beta decay are examples of nuclear transmutation because: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The number of electrons changes. ','optionB':'The number of neutrons changes. ','optionC':'The number of positrons changes. ','optionD':'The number of protons changes. '},{'text':'A decay series is usually represented as a graph and shows: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The time taken to reach a stable nucleus. ','optionB':'The number of alpha particles emitted during transmutation. ','optionC':'The number of different stable atoms that can be formed. ','optionD':'The series of decays that occur for an unstable nucleus to become stable. '},{'text':'Gamma radiation is emitted: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'After alpha decay only. ','optionB':'After beta decay only. ','optionC':'When protons are ejected from the nucleus. ','optionD':'After an alpha or beta decay has occurred leaving the atom in an excited state. '},{'text':'The neutrino was a theoretical particle that was suggested in order to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Show the conservation of energy held during beta decay. ','optionB':'Account for the missing mass before neutrons were known. ','optionC':'Show conservation of momentum held during alpha decay. ','optionD':'Account for missing electrons. '},{'text':'A mass spectrometer can be used to determine the mass of electrons and protons as the magnetic field is applied. This is because: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'It acts as a mass scale. ','optionB':'Only magnetic fields will allow these particles to be deflected and measured. ','optionC':'Charged particles will follow a circular path and the radius of curvature can be equated to their mass. ','optionD':'The particles move at different speeds and therefore the timing will be different. '},{'text':'Atomic mass unit or amu in kilogram is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1.6605 x 10^-27 ','optionB':'1.6 x 10^-19 ','optionC':'931 ','optionD':'9.1 x 10^-31 '},{'text':'Convert 3.2 amu to kilograms. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'5.3 x 10^-27 kg ','optionB':'9.1 x 10^-31 kg ','optionC':'1.6 x 10^-27 kg ','optionD':'9.1 x 10^-27 kg '},{'text':'The mass defect is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The difference between the mass of a nucleus and the sum of the individual nucleons. ','optionB':'Large enough to measure on regular scales. ','optionC':'A problem that occurs when an atom is created. ','optionD':'A mass difference that occurs due to more neutrons being created as an atom is created. '},{'text':'Binding energy is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The energy needed to separate the nucleus of an atom. ','optionB':'The energy needed to combine 2 elements. ','optionC':'The energy that holds electrons to an atom. ','optionD':'Measured in kilograms. '},{'text':'When looking at a graph of binding energy per nucleon, an atom is considered to be more stable if: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'It is higher than another element on the curve. ','optionB':'It is lower than another element on the curve. ','optionC':'The total energy is higher than other elements. ','optionD':'It sits on a spike on the curve. '},{'text':'An atom can become more stable if it moves higher on a graph of binding energy per nucleon. This can be achieved if: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'All atoms undergo fission. ','optionB':'Atoms with heavy nuclei fuse or atoms with light nuclei undergo fission. ','optionC':'Atoms with light nuclei fuse or atoms with heavy nuclei undergo fission. ','optionD':'All atoms fuse. '},{'text':'Calculate the mass defect that is created in putting together a Li-7 atom. (mp = 1.007276 amu , mn = 1.008665 amu , me = 0.000548 amu , mLi = 7.01601 amu) ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.004 815 amu ','optionB':'none ','optionC':'0.003 amu ','optionD':'0.042 122 amu '},{'text':'Calculate the binding energy in putting together a Li-7 atom. (mp = 1.007276 amu , mn = 1.008665 amu , me = 0.000548 amu , mLi = 7.01601 amu) ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'4.12 J ','optionB':'0.044 MeV ','optionC':'3.96 x 10^14 J ','optionD':'4.12 MeV'},]


radioactivity_and_pet.txt

[{'text':'Radioactive decay occurs when: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'An atom is unstable because of the number of neutrons in comparison to protons. ','optionB':'Rocks are unearthed during mining. ','optionC':'A stable atom breaks down. ','optionD':'An atom is unstable due to the nuclear force being too large. '},{'text':'Naturally occurring unstable isotopes are known as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Polonium. ','optionB':'Radium. ','optionC':'TV isotopes. ','optionD':'Radio isotopes or radioactive isotopes. '},{'text':'Alpha decay is the process whereby the nucleus ejects: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A proton. ','optionB':'An electron. ','optionC':'A nucleus that possesses 2 neutrons and 2 protons. ','optionD':'A gamma ray. '},{'text':'Alpha particles are identical to a helium nucleus. Other properties include: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Low ionisation, high penetration. ','optionB':'Low ionisation and penetration. ','optionC':'High penetration and ionisation. ','optionD':'Highly ionising, low penetration. '},{'text':'In beta decay, the number of (1) changes whereas the number of (2) remains the same. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'1 = neutrons, 2 = protons. ','optionB':'1 = protons, 2 = neutrons. ','optionC':'1 = neutrons, 2 = electrons. ','optionD':'1 = electrons, 2 = protons. '},{'text':'A positron has the properties of ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'An electron with a positive charge. ','optionB':'A proton with a positive charge. ','optionC':'A neutron with a positive charge. ','optionD':'A proton with a negative charge. '},{'text':'Positrons are emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom when: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A proton changes to an electron. ','optionB':'A proton changes to a neutron. ','optionC':'A neutron changes to a proton. ','optionD':'A neutron changes to a electron. '},{'text':'A positron is called antimatter. If it was to come in contact with an electron: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A neutron would form. ','optionB':'A new particle would form. ','optionC':'The total mass is converted to energy. ','optionD':'A proton would form. '},{'text':'Antimatter and matter combining can be used in medical applications. Name one. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'X-rays ','optionB':'MRI ','optionC':'PET ','optionD':'Ultrasound '},{'text':'Metastable Technetium-99 is a medical isotope that emits: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Gamma rays ','optionB':'X-rays ','optionC':'Electrons ','optionD':'Neutrons '},{'text':'The half-life of radioactive nuclei is the time: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'For half the life of each atom. ','optionB':'For half the atoms to disappear. ','optionC':'For two stable atoms to decay. ','optionD':'For half the radioactive nuclei to decay into stable nuclei. '},{'text':'Advantage of using radioisotopes in imaging over X-rays and ultrasound is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'No radiation is used. ','optionB':'The image shows how the body is working rather than a detailed image of the body. ','optionC':'A more detailed image is produced. ','optionD':'It is cheaper. '},{'text':'Radioisotopes are selected depending on the organ of interest. They are attached to a substance that: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Will easily have something attached to it. ','optionB':'Can be swallowed. ','optionC':'Is used by a specific organ and will accumulate in the region of interest. ','optionD':'Is small enough to travel through the body. '},{'text':'When choosing a radio isotope to use in diagnosis, the following factors must be considered: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Half life, absorption rate and excretion rate. ','optionB':'Size, cost and availability. ','optionC':'Half life, availability and cost. ','optionD':'Half life, cost, excretion rate. '},{'text':'Radioisotopes for medical applications are produced in: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A chemical laboratory ','optionB':'A fission reaction ','optionC':'Cyclotrons or nuclear reactors ','optionD':'The sun '},{'text':'Radioisotopes produced in a cyclotron and a nuclear reactor are: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Nuclear reactor - small nuclei; cyclotron - large nuclei. ','optionB':'Nuclear reactor - large nuclei; cyclotron - small nuclei. ','optionC':'Large nuclei in both. ','optionD':'Small nuclei in both. '},{'text':'It is not practical to import radioisotopes because: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The size of the storage vessel would be too large. ','optionB':'The half-life is so short there will not be enough of the required radiation on arrival. ','optionC':'The cost is prohibitive. ','optionD':'It is against the law to import radioactive substances. '},{'text':'To detect the radiopharmaceuticals once in a patient a: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Alpha camera is needed. ','optionB':'Gamma camera is needed. ','optionC':'Optical camera is needed. ','optionD':'Beta camera is needed. '},{'text':'Areas that show a high metabolic activity show on the scan as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Lighter regions. ','optionB':'Darker regions. ','optionC':'Red areas. ','optionD':'Regions of changing colour. '},{'text':'PET scans do not show an image of the body, they show ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Parts of the body that need to be imaged. ','optionB':'The oxygen levels in the body. ','optionC':'The amount of radiation coming from the body. ','optionD':'A functional image which show things like the metabolic rate of organs in the body. '},{'text':'PET scans have been able to show things that other methods have not such as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Foetus before birth. ','optionB':'Areas of the brain used in different activities. ','optionC':'Real images of the internal organs. ','optionD':'Bone structure.'},]


relativity.txt

[{'text':'An inertial frame of reference is one in which:￿ ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'only constant motion can be detected. ','optionB':'Newtons law of inertia is obeyed, i.e. moving at a constant speed or not moving. ','optionC':'the frame is accelerating. ','optionD':'Newtons laws do not hold. '},{'text':'Why is it not possible to have an absolute velocity? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'There is no absolute frame of reference and no experiment can be done within it to determine your velocity. ','optionB':'It is not measured in a vacuum. ','optionC':'Newtons laws dont hold in relativity. ','optionD':'There is always acceleration. '},{'text':'Determine the acceleration of a car going around a corner if the accelerometer in the car made an angle of 15 degrees to the vertical. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'36 ms^-2 ','optionB':'9.8 ms^-2 ','optionC':'2.6 ms^-2 ','optionD':'6 ms^-2 '},{'text':'James Maxwell assumed that a change in electric field can induce a magnetic field. From this he showed that: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'An oscillating magnetic field induced a changing electric field. ','optionB':'The speed of light is constant. ','optionC':'All electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed. ','optionD':'An oscillating electric field induced a changing magnetic field. '},{'text':'The aether was a medium suggested to help explain waves in space. Some of the properties include: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Stiff and high density. ','optionB':'Not permeable by materials and transparent. ','optionC':'Stiffness and a lower density than air. ','optionD':'Opaque and stiff. '},{'text':'If you are swimming in a river in the direction of the current in the river, according to Galilean transformations, your speed will be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Your speed minus that of the current. ','optionB':'The rivers speed. ','optionC':'Your speed plus that of the river. ','optionD':'Your speed. '},{'text':'If you are in a train that is travelling at the speed of light and hold up a mirror to your face, what is seen? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'No reflection. ','optionB':'A distorted image. ','optionC':'Cant tell. ','optionD':'Your reflection. '},{'text':'Michelson and Morley set out to measure: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Speed of the aether by measuring an interference pattern. ','optionB':'Speed of light in the aether by measuring a change in interference patterns. ','optionC':'Speed of light in the aether by measuring an interference pattern. ','optionD':'The speed of the Earth spinning. '},{'text':'Michelson and Morley predicted that, if there was an aether wind, their experiment would show: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A change in position of the interference pattern. ','optionB':'A change in position of the diffraction pattern. ','optionC':'An interference pattern. ','optionD':'A diffraction pattern. '},{'text':'A negative result from the Michelson and Morley experiment suggests that:￿ ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The Earth is not spinning. ','optionB':'There is no aether. ','optionC':'The Earth is moving at the same speed as the aether. ','optionD':'The speed of light is not constant. '},{'text':'Einstein stated that for the speed of light to be constant in a vacuum, the following must be true: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Length and time must vary. ','optionB':'Someone must be observing from a different frame of reference. ','optionC':'A non-inertial frame must be used to view the situation. ','optionD':'It only is true at the limiting speed of 3 ￿10^8 ms-1. '},{'text':'The principle of simultaneity states that an event that is apparently simultaneous to one observer: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Is the same to all observers. ','optionB':'Can only be determined to be so by a second observer in another frame of reference. ','optionC':'Is simultaneous to those in non-inertial frames. ','optionD':'Is not to observers in a different frame of reference. '},{'text':'Calculate the time taken for a space ship travelling at 0.8c, to travel past a stationary observer if the time measure on the space ship is 2 seconds. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'4.5 seconds ','optionB':'3.3 seconds ','optionC':'1.2 seconds ','optionD':'0.88 seconds '},{'text':'Evidence that time dilation happens would be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'More muons than predicted reaching the surface of the Earth. ','optionB':'There is none yet. ','optionC':'The speed particles in a particle accelerator can reach. ','optionD':'The twin paradox. '},{'text':'In the twin paradox, Bill (twin A) can be said to be younger than Phil (twin B) on returning from a journey to space. How can this be true and not violate the principle that all inertial frames are equivalent? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'This is a case of special relativity. ','optionB':'Bill left his inertial frame when he accelerated. ','optionC':'Bill was the second born. ','optionD':'They are both travelling in the same frame. '},{'text':'Determine the mass of an electron moving at 0.7c given that its rest mass is 9.1 x 10^-31 kg. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'6.5 x 10^-31 kg ','optionB':'9.1 x 10^-31 kg ','optionC':'1.6 x 10^-30 kg ','optionD':'1.27 x10^-30 kg '},{'text':'A muon moves through a distance of 2 m at a speed of 0.8c. Determine this distance as seen by the muon. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.89 m ','optionB':'4.5 m ','optionC':'1.2 m ','optionD':'3.3 m '},{'text':'If a spaceship moves past a stationary observer at a speed close to the speed of light, how will its dimensions appear from the spaceship and the observer? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Unchanged; the length is shortened. ','optionB':'Length shortened; height shorter. ','optionC':'Unchanged; the length is greater. ','optionD':'Unchanged; all dimensions shortened. '},{'text':'Calculate the mass defect that is created in putting together a Li-7 atom. (mp = 1.007276 amu , mn = 1.008665 amu , me = 0.000548 amu , mLi = 7.01601 amu) ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.004 815 amu ','optionB':'none ','optionC':'0.003 amu ','optionD':'0.042 122 amu '},{'text':'Calculate the binding energy in putting together a Li-7 atom. (mp = 1.007276 amu , mn = 1.008665 amu , me = 0.000548 amu , mLi = 7.01601 amu) ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'4.12 J ','optionB':'0.044 MeV ','optionC':'3.96 x 10^14 J ','optionD':'4.12 MeV'},]


stars.txt

[{'text':'The spectrum of light from a nebula would appear: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'As a continuous spectrum. ','optionB':'As an emission spectrum. ','optionC':'Blurry due to being a nebula. ','optionD':'As an absorption spectrum. '},{'text':'Stellar parallax is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The apparent change in position of nearby stars relative to more distant stars. ','optionB':'Seeing two images because a telescope is not aligned properly. ','optionC':'Change in position of stars. ','optionD':'The apparent change in position of distant stars relative to more nearby stars. '},{'text':'Calculate the angle of parallax of a star that is 4 parsecs away. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.25 seconds of arc ','optionB':'4 seconds of arc ','optionC':'0.5 seconds of arc ','optionD':'0.4 seconds of arc '},{'text':'The characteristic appearance of Fraunhofer lines and the way they are produced correctly stated is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Appear to be a continuous spectrum and are produced by absorption of light by elements. ','optionB':'Appear bright colours in the spectrum and are produced by emission of light by elements. ','optionC':'Appear dark in the spectrum and are produced by absorption of light by elements. ','optionD':'Appear bright colours in the spectrum and are produced by absorption of light by elements. '},{'text':'An example and definition of a continuous spectrum is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A fluorescent light. It is line emissions of wavelengths. ','optionB':'A fluorescent light. It is a continuous emission of wavelengths. ','optionC':'A filament light globe. It is a continuous emission of wavelengths. ','optionD':'A filament light globe. It is line emissions of wavelengths '},{'text':'An example and definition of an emission spectrum is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Fluorescent light. Bright emission of light at every wavelength. ','optionB':'Fluorescent light. Bright emission of light at wavelengths characteristic of the element. ','optionC':'The Sun. Bright emission of light at wavelengths characteristic of the element. ','optionD':'The Sun. Bright emission of light at every wavelength. '},{'text':'A black body radiation curve peaks in intensity at a particular wavelength that is related to temperature. The relationship between temperature and peak wavelength is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'They are proportional. ','optionB':'They are related by the inverse square of wavelength. ','optionC':'They are inversely proportional. ','optionD':'They are related by the square of wavelength. '},{'text':'An example of something that will produce an emission spectrum is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The Sun. ','optionB':'Filament light globe. ','optionC':'Stellar light. ','optionD':'Fluorescent light, discharge tube. '},{'text':'Emission spectra are created when: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Excited electrons within an atom return to as lower allowed energy state and absorb energy related to a specific wavelength. ','optionB':'Excited electrons within an atom return to a lower allowed energy state and emit energy related to a specific wavelength. ','optionC':'Excited electrons within an atom return to a higher allowed energy state and emit energy related to a specific wavelength. ','optionD':'Excited electrons within an atom return to a higher allowed energy state and absorb energy related to a specific wavelength. '},{'text':'An example of absorption spectra can be found in: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The spectra of the Sun. ','optionB':'A filament light globe. ','optionC':'A fluorescent light globe. ','optionD':'Chemicals sprayed in a flame. '},{'text':'The life of a star is mainly spent in which stage of the stellar life? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'White dwarf. ','optionB':'Red giant. ','optionC':'Nova. ','optionD':'Main sequence. '},{'text':'Equilibrium of a star refers to: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The balance between the number of hydrogen and helium atoms in a star. ','optionB':'The balance between radiant inward pressure and outward gravitation. ','optionC':'The limit of luminosity of a star. ','optionD':'The balance between radiant outward pressure and inward gravitation. '},{'text':'The rate of use of fuel is dependent on: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The mass of the star. Large stars use fuel much quicker. ','optionB':'The mass of the star. Small stars use fuel much quicker. ','optionC':'Radius of a star. The further out a star reaches, the slower it uses its fuel. ','optionD':'Radius of a star. The smaller the star, the slower it uses its fuel. '},{'text':'The stages a star similar to our Sun will follow would be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Protostar --> main sequence --> red giant --> planetary nebula --> white dwarf ','optionB':'Protostar --> main sequence --> red giant --> supernova --> black hole ','optionC':'Protostar --> main sequence --> red giant --> supernova --> white dwarf ','optionD':'Protostar --> main sequence --> red giant --> planetary nebula --> black hole '},{'text':'The nuclear fusion occurring in a white dwarf is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Triple alpha ','optionB':'CNO cycle ','optionC':'none ','optionD':'PP chain '},{'text':'What is the limit of the size of the elements that can be produced through nuclear fusion? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'iron ','optionB':'silicon ','optionC':'carbon ','optionD':'helium '},{'text':'The heavy elements cannot be made during nuclear fusion. How are these elements synthesised? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'supernova ','optionB':'neutron degeneration ','optionC':'nebulae ','optionD':'white dwarf '},{'text':'A black hole can be defined to be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'An absence of light from a region in space. ','optionB':'Rotating neutron star. ','optionC':'A hole in the fabric of the universe. ','optionD':'The death of a star that has no known force to stop it inwardly collapsing.'},]


ultrasound.txt

[{'text':'Ultrasound is defined to be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Sound that has a lower frequency than human hearing. ','optionB':'Sound that is greater in frequency than the upper limit of human hearing i.e. 20 kHz. ','optionC':'Frequency of sound in the human hearing range. ','optionD':'Sound that lies in the frequency range of 20-200 Hz. '},{'text':'A transducer is a device used to produce and detect ultrasound. It can be defined as: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A device that collects and emits sound waves. ','optionB':'Any device that converts energy from one form to another. ','optionC':'A device that allows electric fields to be changed to sound. ','optionD':'A device that can image magnetic fields. '},{'text':'The intensity of the reflection of ultrasound waves that are detected by a transducer will depend on: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The amplification process that is applied. ','optionB':'The difference in the acoustic properties of the tissues, the intervening tissue and the angle of the boundary. ','optionC':'The acoustics of the room the procedure is carried out in. ','optionD':'The quality of the transducer. '},{'text':'A major advantage of ultrasound imaging is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'It has a better success rate of diagnosis. ','optionB':'The ability to image internal organs such as the lungs. ','optionC':'It is non-intrusive or doesnt involve ionising radiation. ','optionD':'It is cheap and quick. '},{'text':'Disadvantages of ultrasound include: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Intrusive procedure. ','optionB':'Difficult to interpret compared to an X-ray, bone and air make imaging difficult. ','optionC':'Expensive to have done. ','optionD':'Uses ionising radiation and therefore is limited in its use. '},{'text':'Ultrasound transducers use piezoelectric crystals. When a voltage is placed across the crystal: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Sparks are created that are converted to form an image ','optionB':'It vibrates. ','optionC':'A sound is made. ','optionD':'The size alters slightly and sets up a sound wave. '},{'text':'The size of the object that can be imaged is determined by: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The size of the ultrasound machine. ','optionB':'Frequency. Only a select range can be used. ','optionC':'Wavelength. If the object is greater than the wavelength the diffraction becomes significant and no reflection of the wave occurs ','optionD':'Wavelength. If the object is less than the wavelength the diffraction becomes significant and no reflection of the wave occurs. '},{'text':'Acoustic impedance is: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A property that describes how easily a specific frequency will pass through a material. ','optionB':'Limited ability to hear. ','optionC':'The ability to interfere with other sounds in the area. ','optionD':'A property that describes the ability to stop sound waves. '},{'text':'Calculate the acoustic impedance of fat. Given: fat density = 920 kgm^-3 and the velocity = 1450 ms^-1. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'7.5 x 10^-7 ','optionB':'1.33 x 10^6 ','optionC':'4 x 10^6 ','optionD':'1.3 x 10^-5 '},{'text':'Calculate the percentage of ultrasound energy reflected at a boundary of blood and muscle. Given: Iblood = 1.66 x 10^6, Imuscle = 1.65 x 10^6. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'9.13 x 10^-6 percent ','optionB':'1 x 10^3 percent ','optionC':'9.13 x 10^-4 percent ','optionD':'9 percent '},{'text':'A-mode scaning uses a single dimension transducer. It is best used in examining: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The foetus. ','optionB':'The flow of blood in the heart. ','optionC':'Midline structures in the brain. ','optionD':'Bone breaks. '},{'text':'B-mode scans or brightness scans are used: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'To produce a 2D image of the body such as a foetus. ','optionB':'Examining midline structures in the brain. ','optionC':'To examine bone breaks. ','optionD':'To examine the brain. '},{'text':'Doppler ultrasound imaging is used to image parts of the body that: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Pulsate or move ','optionB':'Are encased in bone ','optionC':'Show high contrast with a dye ','optionD':'Are broken'},]


velocity_and_acceleration.txt

[{'text':'You toss a ball vertically and step aside. The ball rises and then falls down along the same path and hits the ground. Since the ball reverses direction, it undergoes two-dimensional motion. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'You toss a ball vertically and step aside. The ball rises and then falls down along the same path and hits the ground. The magnitude of the velocity just before landing is greater than its magnitude of initial velocity upon leaving your hand. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'You toss a ball vertically and step aside. The ball rises and then falls down along the same path and hits the ground. The acceleration at the top of the flight is zero. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'You toss a ball vertically and step aside. The ball rises and then falls down along the same path and hits the ground. The time for to rise equals the time for it to fall. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A jogger running four laps around a circular track at 4.5 m/s undergoes motion with constant velocity. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The slope of the tangent to a curved line on a positiontime graph gives the instantaneous velocity. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Megametres per hour per day is a possible unit of acceleration. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A car with an initial velocity of 25 m/s [E] experiences an average acceleration of 2.5 m/s^2 [W] for 2 s.At the end of this interval, the velocity is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'5.0 m/s [W] ','optionB':'75 m/s [W] ','optionC':'0.0 m/s ','optionD':'75 m/s [E] '},{'text':'An acceleration has an eastward component of 2.5 m/s^2 and a northward component of 6.2 m/s^2. The direction of the acceleration is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'[40 degrees E of N] ','optionB':'[68 degrees E of N] ','optionC':'[50 degrees E of N] ','optionD':'[68 degrees N of E] '},{'text':'You are a fullback running with an initial velocity of 7.2 m/s [N].You swerve to avoid a tackle, and after 2.0 s are moving at 7.2 m/s [W].Your average acceleration over the time interval is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'m/s^2 (b) 5.1 m/s^2 [45 degrees N of W] (c) 1.0 3 101 m/s^2 [45 degrees N of W] (d) 3.6 m/s^2 [S] ','optionB':'A tennis ball is thrown into the air with an initial velocity that has a horizontal component of 5.5 m/s and a vertical component of 3.7 m/s [up]. If air resistance is negligible, the speed of the ball at the top of the trajectory is ','optionC':'zero ','optionD':'5.5 m/s '},{'text':'9.2 m/s ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'3.7 m/s ','optionB':'A monkey throws a walnut from a tree, giving the walnut an initial velocity of 2.5 m/s [down]. Air resistance is negligible. After being released, the walnut experiences an acceleration of ','optionC':'9.8 m/s^2 [down] ','optionD':'less than 9.8 m/s^2 '},{'text':'more than 9.8 m/s^2 ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'zero',]


waves.txt

[{'text':'The universal wave equation, v = fL, applies only to transverse waves ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Waves with shorter wavelength experience more diffraction than waves with a longer wavelength ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'For a given slit, the amount of diffraction depends on the ratio L/w. For observable diffraction, L/w <= 1 ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'In a two-point, in-phase interference pattern, increasing the wavelength of the two sources increases the number of nodal lines. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Decreasing the separation of the two-point interference pattern sources increases the number of nodal lines ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Early attempts to demonstrate the interference of light were unsuccessful because the two sources were too far apart and out of phase and the frequency of light is very small. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Dispersion occurs because the refractive index of light is slightly higher for red light than it is for violet light. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'Youngs experiment validated the wave theory of light and explained all the properties of light. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A beam of light travels from a vacuum into a substance at an angle of 45 degrees, with a frequency of 6 x 10^14 Hz and a speed of 2.13 x 10^8 m/s. The index of refraction of the substance is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.707 ','optionB':'1.41 ','optionC':'1.50 ','optionD':'indeterminable, but < 1 '},{'text':'Two point sources in a ripple tank vibrate in phase at a frequency of 12 Hz to produce waves of wavelength 0.024 m. The difference in path length from the two point sources to a point on the second nodal line is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.6 cm ','optionB':'3.6 cm ','optionC':'1.2 cm ','optionD':'4.8 cm '},{'text':'Two point sources 4.5 cm apart are vibrating in phase in a ripple tank.You count exactly 10 nodal lines in the entire interference pattern. The approximate wavelength of the water waves in the tank is ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.45 cm ','optionB':'10 cm ','optionC':'1.0 cm ','optionD':'1.5 cm '},{'text':'In a double-slit experiment, monochromatic light is used to produce interference fringes on a screen. The distance between the slits and the screen is 1.50 m. The bright fringes are separated by 0.30 cm. If the screen is moved so that it is 1.0 m from the slits, the average distance between adjacent dark fringes will be ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'0.20 cm ','optionB':'0.45 cm ','optionC':'1.5 cm ','optionD':'0.30 cm'},]


work.txt

[{'text':'If friction is negligible, the work done on a pen in raising it 25 cm is the same whether the pen is raised along a vertical path or along a path inclined at some angle to the horizontal. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'As you walk along a horizontal floor carrying a backpack at a constant height above the floor, the work done by gravity on the backpack is negative. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'You walk along a horizontal floor carrying a backpack at a constant height above the floor. You come to a complete stop to talk to a friend. As you are in the process of slowing down to stop, the work you do on the backpack is zero. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'An eraser falls from rest from a desktop to the floor. As it falls, its kinetic energy increases in proportion to the square of its speed, and its gravitational potential energy decreases in proportion to the square of the distance fallen. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A ball bouncing off a floor never reaches the same height from which it was dropped (from rest). This does not refute the law of conservation of energy, because the ball and the floor do not belong to the same isolated system. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'T ','optionB':'F ','optionC':'? ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A golfer, walking at constant velocity, carries a golf bag horizontally by exerting an upward force on it. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The work done is positive ','optionB':'The work done is negative ','optionC':'The work done is zero ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A student exerts a force on a book as the book is lowered at constant velocity toward the floor. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The work done is positive ','optionB':'The work done is negative ','optionC':'The work done is zero ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'The force of gravity acts on a hot-air balloon moving vertically upward. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The work done is positive ','optionB':'The work done is negative ','optionC':'The work done is zero ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A normal force is exerted by a road on a car accelerating away from an intersection. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The work done is positive ','optionB':'The work done is negative ','optionC':'The work done is zero ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'In a simple model of the atom, an electron travels in a circular orbit as a result of the electrical force toward the nucleus. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The work done is positive ','optionB':'The work done is negative ','optionC':'The work done is zero ','optionD':'? '},{'text':'A tension acts on a mass attached to a string. The mass is swinging as a pendulum. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The work done is positive ','optionB':'The work done is negative ','optionC':'The work done is zero ','optionD':'?'},]


xrays.txt

[{'text':'X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation that lie between which other 2 forms of radiation? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Gamma and Visible ','optionB':'Visible and radio ','optionC':'Visible and IR ','optionD':'Gamma and UV '},{'text':'X-ray tubes are basically made of: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'A transducer with a screen ','optionB':'A cathode ray tube with electric fields applied to it. ','optionC':'A hot cathode ray tube ','optionD':'Any evacuated tube '},{'text':'Characteristic X-rays are produced when: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'An accelerated electron interacts with and knocks out an electron from an inner shell of the anode. ','optionB':'Radiation is emitted when electrons are de-accelerated or braked, when fired into a metal target. ','optionC':'When electrons pass through the body and emerge on the other side. ','optionD':'Electrons interact with air. '},{'text':'List the basic components of an x-ray machine. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'X-ray tube, aluminium filter, grid and detector. ','optionB':'X-ray tube, collimator, platform, anode and cathode. ','optionC':'X-ray tube, collimator, platform, grid and detector. ','optionD':'X-ray tube, cathode, platform, grid and detector. '},{'text':'Explain how it is possible to image hollow structures with X-rays. ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine which absorb X-rays are swallowed or injected into the body. ','optionB':'The resolution is increased by using lenses to focus the X-ray machine. ','optionC':'By taking a series of images from different sides of the body. ','optionD':'By injecting radiation and subjecting it to a magnetic field. '},{'text':'How is an image produced from a CT scan? ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'The patient is moved around the X-ray tube and the images are collated for later processing. ','optionB':'A series of slices through the body are taken. ','optionC':'A series of X-ray tubes are placed around the body, each taking simultaneous images. ','optionD':'X-ray tube rotates around patient. The detector collects and digitises the images. '},{'text':'The grey scale that is assigned to the image from a CT scan is a series of numbers that represent: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'How high the resolution of the image will be in each section. ','optionB':'Colours for the image produced. ','optionC':'How reflective the tissue is. ','optionD':'10 = black; 0 = white and the rest are grey steps in between. '},{'text':'An advantage of a CT scan over an X-ray image would be: ','image':'?','answer':'?','optionA':'Greater comfort of the patient during the procedure. ','optionB':'Less time to create the image. ','optionC':'A smaller amount of radiation is used. ','optionD':'The ability to image structures behind bone.'},]